Thursday, February 13, 2020

Discuss how variation within the human genome might lead to cancer Essay

Discuss how variation within the human genome might lead to cancer - Essay Example These tumor cells are eventually able to invade neighboring tissue and spread further to other tissues via metastasis. Cancer begins after one cell undergoes one gene variation after another, until these collectively transform normal cells to uncontrollably dividing cancerous cells. Current research identifies the mutations that lead to cancer as occurring in two general genes; the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which normally accelerate and inhibit growth and division of cells respectively (Wong et al, 2011: p429). As a result, gene variations that over-activate proto-oncogenes and inhibit tumor suppressor genes drive the development of transformed cancer cells. These gene variants responsible for maintaining this transformed cancer phenotype are then selected for during tumorigenesis, causing cancer. Genetic instability has been identified as a fundamental hallmark of all cancerous cells. Genetic instability, in this case, is referent to increased frequency of genomic mutations. According to Almendro et al (2013: p283), this genetic instability can be seen at both the chromosomal level leading to deletions, translocations, amplifications, and aneuploidy of the entire chromosome, as well as at nucleotide level leading to point mutations. The two manifestations of genetic instability can result in an increase of mutation rates in cancerous cells through the alteration of protein function or expression. In the past five years, the most prevalent debate has been about whether changes to single nucleotides or abnormalities related to large macromolecular chromosomes tend to be more common in human cancer, as well as whether they are a causative factor in development of cancer (Almendro et al, 2013: p283). Alteration in chromosome number, also referred to as aneuploidy, is a critical characteristic of any cancers and is, in fact, one of the genetic alterations most observed in human cancers. Specific exchanges of chromosomes have been found to

Saturday, February 1, 2020

H.W Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

H.W - Assignment Example Each employee will strive to meet set goals so that they earn such non-cash rewards. In addition, Gina will find non-cash rewards less costly compared to cash. First, employees may not notice exactly how worthy is the reward. This is contrary to cash rewards in which workers consider the amount to get motivated. For example, Gina should set a program in which successful logging detailed notes about the client call in the online database, the customer care representative earns points used to redeem tangible items of value to them. To maintain customer satisfaction at the end of every call, Gina should make it part of her reward to manage knowledge. Rewards imply after exemplary performance, there should be learning experience that enhances other employees to gain knowledge of serving in the same line. However, Gina should be careful not to overload the trip with learning sessions. Employee should find more than 80 percent of the travel to himself or herself for recreation. In summary, non-cash rewards are guilt-free as opposed to money that employees spend on ordinar y commitments. May Johnson’s performance problems are multi-faceted. First, she lacks management experience. It is her first experience working with a group of employees reporting directly to her. As a result, she believes that everything should go in line with what she understands and strongly holds. Secondly, Johnson lacks knowledge of the current systems used by the company and other employees. She relies on obsolete systems. Johnson’s overreliance on obsolete systems constantly raises conflicts with her junior employees. In addition, Johnson does not understand vital aspects of job specialization. She desires to perform everything and does not believe that any duty accomplished by other individuals can be perfect. Johnson repeats every work her junior staff members present to her. May Johnson’s employee are

Friday, January 24, 2020

Womens Roles in The Yellow Wallpaper and The Withered Arm

Women's Roles in The Yellow Wallpaper and The Withered Arm In the late 19th century, women were expected to conform to the conventions of society. This meant that they were expected to get married young, pure and beautiful. They were treated like objects as if men bought them. How the woman felt was irrelevant in this period. Women were expected to produce an 'heir and a spare'. Women were also victim to double standards. For example, women had to deal with a child out of wedlock yet were given no responsibility for this. This contrasts strongly to a woman's role in society today. However, women are still expected to get married and give birth to a child. I am going to explore this issue in two short stories; The Yellow Wallpaper written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in 1892, and The Withered Arm written by Thomas Hardy in 1887. The Yellow Wallpaper is about a women suffering from postnatal depression that is given the 'rest cure'. She feels trapped and eventually goes mad. The Withered Arm is about a milkmaid called Rhoda who had a child out of wedlock and has been excluded from society. The man with whom she had the child with gets married to a young girl who Rhoda resents and in a dream disfigures her arm. The young bride tries to cure her arm by touching a recently executed man who turns out to be Rhoda's son. The shock kills the young bride and the husband sees the error of his ways and soon dies himself. In The Withered Arm, Hardy portrays how negative life was for women in Victorian society. However, on the other hand, he clearly shows sympathy for the plight of women which suggests he had a desire for change. Hardy shows how the role of women in Victorian society was to get married. If... ...ath also forces Farmer Lodge to see the error of his ways. In The Yellow Wallpaper, The speaker defies the conventions of society by creeping around openly in front of John, however, in the same moment; she appears to have gone mad. This appears to be the only way out for her. Both stories symbolise how hard it was not to conform to society; a person died in one and in the other, a person went mad. They show that emancipation was almost impossible for a woman in Victorian times. The two stories use different narrative viewpoints. The Withered Arm uses the third person narration, which is seen to be more sympathetic towards the plight of women and more objective. The Yellow Wallpaper uses the first person narration, which seems less convincing and bias, however it also symbolises the aloneness of the speaker and her lack of voice empathises her plight.

Thursday, January 16, 2020

Drug Use Cause And Effect Essay

You hear about more and more people using drugs these days, particularly prescription drugs. Doctors may prescribe these drugs to you and you may think they are helping but, what you don’t know is how they may change a normal functioning person into an addict. These drugs are habit forming and can seriously harm you, even kill you. For Years people go to the doctor for one reason or another. Some doctors prescribe pills that can sometimes be more damaging than helpful. Certain drugs these doctors prescribe like pain killers only mask the problem, not really solving it.Some names of these painkillers are: Vicodin, Lortab, Anexsia, Zydone, and Norco. After several weeks of taking these drugs, you can become physically and emotionally dependent. Even if you have never been an addict or used street drugs before you can become dependent. After a prolonged period, say a few weeks, of taking these drugs, not only are you dependent but, if you do not continue to ingest these pills you will experience withdrawal symptoms. Some of these withdrawal symptoms include: insomnia, night sweats, tremors and agitation.Studies have shown prolonged use or misuse of these painkillers can have other dangerous consequences. Dangers of these drugs include: liver disease related to prolonged or excessive use of the acetaminophen (contained in Vicodin). Physical tolerance to the drug after prolonged use, increased doses is needed to achieve the same pain relief. People tend to forget or do not read the interaction warnings or labels on these drugs. Mixing certain types of other drugs with painkillers can be extremely dangerous and end in a bad result. Drugs like MAO inhibitors and antidepressants can result in respiratory complications or death.

Wednesday, January 8, 2020

Reverse Slavery In America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 888 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/22 Category Literature Essay Level High school Tags: Modest Proposal Essay Slavery Essay Did you like this example? Reverse Slavery In America Reverse Slavery is defined as the day when white people become slaves, or as some say the day justice is served. Many years ago slavery was still a way of life practiced in our great nation, the United States of America. Slavery was a legal institute for human enslavement, which mainly consisted of Africans and African-Americans that were around in the 18th and 19th centuries. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Reverse Slavery In America" essay for you Create order Slaves were treated horribly, suffered from terrible physical abuse, because the government allowed it. After many years slavery was finally abolished in America, in the glorious year of 1865, and even after that blacks were still being punished for something they have no control of. Being Black. White people have had their turn at beating in taking advantage of the entire black race, and now I believe it should be our turn the deal out of the lashings. Just imagine that on any given day of the week a white person could be beaten, lynched, or hung, just for being white. Some White folks feel they are unjustly treated, because of certain exclusions or views from Blacks. I can respect everyones views and believe that those feelings are valid, but I wanted to paint a realistic picture on what reverse racism in this country would be like if, of course, it were equal to what wed call regular racism. Imagine an America where reverse racism was real. There would be hundreds of white men being killed by the hands of racist black police officers. Imagine a population of white people who were under privileged, and under being educated, being called thugs and crackers. Imagine the white people being told theyre what is wrong with the country, and they should just go back to Europe where they came from. Just imagine that every CEO of every major corporation in the US, was a black man. Just Imagine that all black communities having a low crime rate and safe schools. Just imagine if poor neighborhoods were predominantly white. Just imagine white children being labeled as delinquents before they even had the opportunity to get an education. Just imagine jails being built for little white boys because a test that black people made up for them says they will fail. Just imagine rich black prison owners paying rich black judges money to prosecute and sentence anyone that has white skin, just so they can keep getting rich, and then their black children will be born rich, too! Just imagine millions of white children with learning disabilities and behavioral and emotional problems because of development issues due to a lack of resources. Just imagine that all you saw when you turned on the news where black reporters reporting on the crimes that are not only affect white people, but are caused by white people, too. Hide your black kids! Just Imagine prisons filled with mostly white men while universities rewarded spoiled black kids that could pretty much get away with anything because of Affluenza. Just imagine if segregation was legal again, but instead reversed. Just imagine for a moment no whites allowed signs plastered on most, if not all, public service buildings and businesses. Just imagine if white people were not allowed in schools where black children were learning about the world and how to develop and sharpen their minds. Just imagine if on any given day of the week a white person could be lynched or beaten to death, just because they were white. Just imagine if black babies were cared for by white women who did any and all work for black mothers, no matter how demeaning it was. Just imagine that the greatest business owners, church leaders and all government officials where only black men. Just imagine a growing America that was being built on the backs of white people, but only to benefit black people. An amazing time for America! Car companies and the industrial businesses booming. Great opportunities afforded only to black men, while white men were not even allowed to compete. During these great times for black people there was no space for sharing with white people, because they were only just recognized as humans. Just imagine Africans discovering a land with rich soil and being too greedy to share with its natives, instead killing them. Just imagine that these Africans were too lazy to work and decided it would be easier to enjoy the fruits of other peoples labor. Just imagine that these Africans went into European countries and destroyed these European families by stealing them away from their families and their culture. These Africans would end the English language by beating and killing the Europeans until they spoke their African languages. Just imagine the enslaved white faces, being sold like cattle. Just imagine little white girls and boys screaming in terror as they were ripped from the arms of their mothers. Just imagine white women raped by African men and white men beat until their skin fell off. Just imagine that the hope for all European nations all laid in a struggle. A hope for peace in a land they never wanted. Just imagine that there would be wars and fighting for equality that would last for centuries. Just imagine decades of marching, rioting and protesting, all for white people to just be viewed as equals.

Monday, December 30, 2019

Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development The First Stage...

The first stage is called the Sensorimotor stage. It occupies the first two years of a childs life, from birth to 2 years old. It is called the Sensorimotor stage because in it children are occupied with sensing things and moving them. From these activities they learn what makes things happen, what the connections are between actions and their consequences. They learn to grasp and hold and what happens when they let go. This happens later on in the stage. When they are new-born they have no concept of there being anything else apart from themselves in the world. In fact they think that they are the world. Piaget called this Egocentism; he said that children with this attitude were totally Egocentric. This does not mean that†¦show more content†¦Like most things in life, acquisition of the concept of the external world is not as simple as that, but this is no place in which to enquire after such questions. It is easier to ask what evidence there may be that an individual has acquired the concept. One piece of evidence is the childs apparent belief that objects exist when not perceived. This is called belief in Object Permanence. If a cloth is placed over a toy for which an eight-month old child is reaching, the child will immediately lose interest in the toy, as if the toy had ceased to exist. This is just what it has done for the child; as soon as anything passes from its experience that thing is no more. However, only a couple of months later, the same child in a similar situation will actively search for an object that has been hidden from its view. The older child has the concept of Object Permanence; it believes that there is an object under the cloth even though it cannot see it, feel it, hear it, taste it or smell it, and will make an effort to reach it if it so desires. The childs problems are not over yet, though. It is not very agile in its thought; if a toy has been hidden very often in one place,Show MoreRelatedEssay about Understanding Piaget’s Theory and Current Criticism1370 Words   |  6 Pagesand profound man, Jean Piaget, established a theory of cognitive growth during childhood. This theory was viewed as a major model for understanding the intricate steps of mental development from the thinking to understanding for a child. This theory also gave rise to the mentality that cognitive processes during childhood are not minuscule versions of adults but rather an irrational yet unique process with its own rules. Even though Piaget’s theory seems quite reasonable and logical, under the lightRead MoreEssay on Piagets Learning Theory in Elementary Education1549 Words   |  7 PagesPiaget’s Learning Theory in Elementary Education In order to support children’s growth educators try to provide a stimulating classroom environment. They implement different strategies, tools and practices to help achieve this goal. Since educators play an important role in children’s development they should be familiar with developmental psychology and know of its educational implications in the classroom. There are two major approaches of developmental psychology: (1) Cognitive development asRead MoreDevelopmental Theory Essay1726 Words   |  7 PagesShortcomings Of Piaget’s Theory. This essay will be summarising the contributions and shortcomings of the Cognitive-Developmental theory and firstly explore the background and key concept’s of Piaget’s work behind child development. Secondly Piaget’s ideas about cognitive change and the four stages of development from birth which are the sensorimotor stage, the pre-operational stage, the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage and how this impacts development. Thirdly the mainRead MoreResearch On Piaget s Stage Theory1388 Words   |  6 PagesResearch on Piaget’s Stage Theory In a study by Bruce and Muhammad (2009), the specific focus was evaluating prior research done that have aimed for a better understanding in Piaget’s sensorimotor developmental stage (birth-2 years), regarding children who suffer from autism, blindness, intellectual, and physical disabilities. As stated above, object permanence is the primary focus in this stage and it is seen as a foundational skill to master when moving towards the next stages. In each stages, objectRead MoreSocio Cultural Theory And Piaget s Cognitive Development Theory1493 Words   |  6 PagesThe two theorists that I have chosen to compare are Vygotsky for his work on the socio-cultural theory and Piaget’s Cognitive Development theory. The socio-cultural theory focuses on how norms, culture, beliefs and values are passed onto the next generation in a society (Berk, 2007). Piaget was the first psychologist to study cognitive development and described his work as genetic epistemology. He was conc erned with how essential concepts such as the idea of time, numbers, justice etc. arose (SieglerRead MorePiaget s Impact On Education862 Words   |  4 Pagespsychology during the twentieth century. Piaget’s theory has impacted education and a focuses on developmentally appropriate education. Because of Piaget’s impact on education, curriculum, instruction and materials have been developed and are used by students in accordance with the student’s physical and cognitive abilities, along with their emotional and social needs (Ojose, 2008). Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development; before his work, it was assumed thatRead MoreDiscuss Piagets theory of cognitive development1235 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Discuss Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development Cognitive Development can be defined as the development of thought processes. This includes thinking, concept understanding, problem solving, and decision making and remembering from childhood on to adulthood. There are two theories of Cognitive development that offer us two different ways of understanding it. The first is called Domain general. This theory states that one line of development determines all of the changes in a child’sRead MorePiagets Theory of Cognitive Development Essays1715 Words   |  7 Pagesa lifelong interest in how individuals, especially children, use cognitive development to adapt to the world around them. Piaget published his first paper by the age of 10, completed his bachelor’s degree by the age of 18, and at the age of 22 received his PhD from the University of Neuchatel. Piaget spent many years of his life researching the developmental and cognitive knowledge of children. The Theory of Cognitive Development places focus on human intelligence and developmental thinking. â€Å"InfluencedRead MoreJean Piaget s Cognitive Theory Essay1750 Words   |  7 Pageswell-renowned twentieth century scholar responsible for the development of the Cognitive Theory, focusing on how people think over time, which, in turn, reflects in how how attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors are shaped. Jean Piaget observed and divided the Cognitive Theory into four periods of cognitive d evelopment, which occur in the following order: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational. Of the four stages, each has it’s own characteristics and developmental gainsRead MoreJean Piaget: Biography and Theory of Cognitive Development1601 Words   |  6 PagesPiagets Theory of Cognitive Development: Jean Piagets theory of cognitive development is a description of the four distinct stages of development of cognition in children. The theory was developed at a time when Piaget was employed at the Binet Institute in the 1920s in which his main responsibilities were to develop the French versions of questions on the English intelligence tests. During this period, Piaget became increasingly concerned or interested with the reasons children gave for their

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Main Reason People Categorize And Make Assumptions

Today in life a major issue in the world is people being categorized. People are always quick to make some assumptions before they get to know the person. No I’m not innocent; I have categorized before. A time when I categorized someone was when I was in the store. It was an older man and he had this mean face on so I thought he was rude and mean. I was wrong because when I saw him later in the store he was saying hello to people and helping other people in the store that could not reach stuff on the top shelf. I was also wrong, because I was told by one of the workers that he gives back to the community. He does this for families that are in need. After that day, I never categorized anybody else. The main reason people categorize and make assumptions is because of race. You should never categorize because it could happen to you. The main reason people categorize and make assumptions is because of race. For example, in 2012, Trayvon Martin was killed by a Caucasian man that thought he was suspicious because he had a hoodie on, his hands were in his pocket, and he was an African American. So he followed that African American young man even though the cops told him not to, and then he ended up shooting that young man. That Caucasoid was wrong about his assumption because Trayvon Martin was only on his way back home from the store in the rain and was scared that he was being followed. Another time when I saw this was when my friend categorized a young African American girl.Show MoreRelatedConstructivism And The Theory Of Constructivism1577 Words   |  7 Pages We have all been guilty of doing it, making assumptions about someone based on what we have seen or been through. We see a person or an object and classify it as tall, wealthy, ugly, pretty, etc. Categorizing what we see can be helpful but sometimes it c an lead to stereotyping. But why do we make assumptions? The theory of Constructivism can help us understand why we categorize things we see into constructs and how these constructs can be harmful and how they can benefit or hurt us when we communicateRead MoreMcgregor Theory X1067 Words   |  5 PagesIn 1960, Douglas McGregor an American psychologist formulated a theory that has changed the path of management thinking and practice. He proposed two sets of assumptions about employee s attitude and behaviour, so the manager will be in a better position to manage the workers and achieve organizational goals. McGregor named these assumptions as Theory X and Theory This essay would examine the pros and cons of this theory of employee motivation, followed by writer s opinion. (McGregor, 1960) TheoryRead MoreThe Are The Gods Of The Gym1729 Words   |  7 Pagesstem from commonalities within groups, which often cause others to categorize them. Misconceptions originate from false information or misunderstanding, that have been carried out through society. Powerlifters and olympic weightlifters are assumed to be large, heavy set men, who have arrogant personalities, and abuse performance enhancing drugs, but these are simply stereotypes that not all powerlifters fall under. Society categorizes individuals, and groups with stereotypes, that are based on the actionsRead MoreThe, Dinner With Mary Morstan And Watson974 Words   |  4 PagesCognitive Psychology is the study of the human mind; it is how we reason, decide, and produce and comprehend language. In order achieve this we use both mental representations and mental processes. Like in any other situation, much of these cognitive functions are being used in the Sherlock’s Holmes YouTube video â€Å"Dinner with Mary Morstan and Watson†. At the beginning of the clip, you can hear the noise of the restaurant. Holmes closes his eyes, then shortly afterwards Watson calls his name. ThisRead MoreThe Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough by Anne Fausto-Sterling1781 Words   |  7 PagesIn the article â€Å"The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough†, Anne Fausto-Sterling makes some very compelling points. One of her main points is that the western worlds binary system of sex is to constraining and proposes that instead our system should be increase to five, or possible more, sexes. This paper will explain the premises of her argument and important terms. This will be followed by a counterargument as to why three sexes are the max needed and that Fausto-Sterling view could leadRead MoreEssay on Cultural and Racial Stereotyping1439 Words   |  6 Pages Most people find stereotypes to be obnoxious, especially when they have to do with sensitive subjects like gender or race. â€Å"Stereotyping is a generalization about a group or category of people that can have a powerful influence on how we perceive others and their communication behaviors† (Floyd, 61). Because they underestimate the differences among individuals in a group, stereotyping can lead to inaccurate and offensive perceptions of other people. Although stereotypes are prevalent in almost everyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book By Barbara Ehrenreich, Allan G. Johnson, And Austin Fuentes1466 Words   |  6 PagesOthers. That one word distinctively separates people base on a certain trait or characteristic. Society affects us more than we realize. We are oblivious to fact that we have been categorized in a society particularly due to our race, gender, social class. It affects how we react to certain beliefs or people. Barbara Ehrenreich, Allan G. Johnson, and Austin Fuentes all wrote an essay that examines how closely one factor can lead to labeling a person. Each author has creditability in understandingRead MorePo litical Polarization And Culture War Essay1244 Words   |  5 Pagesdanger in measuring polarization by simply looking at the color divided map the media promoted and develops a very specific definition of polarization: â€Å"an intense commitment to a candidate, a culture, or an ideology that sets people in one group definitively apart from people in another, rival group.†1 In particular, he asserts that the use of the terms â€Å"corrupt† or â€Å"wicked† in campaigns are indicative of polarization. In the aftermath of the 2016 election, this definition is extremely valuable.1Read MoreCrash Essay1223 Words   |  5 PagesCrash Stereotypes are the organizational factors that virtually shape the way we think in 20th century America. They somehow manage to categorize some of lifes most complex matters into nice distinct sections. Classifications and organization, at first glance seem to be useful in distinguishing various aspects of modern life. However, these grouping methods can be very inaccurate, leaving erroneous ideas in the minds of citizens on a global level. Stereotypes, though originating as convenientRead MoreHomophobia Hurts Everyone By Warren J. Blumfeld1078 Words   |  5 Pagesstill be terrified of them because they like the same sex? In his article, â€Å"Homophobia Hurts Everyone†, Warren J. Blumfeld (1992) brings to light the issues that homophobia cause in everyone’s lives. The people who are homophobic continue to blindly perpetuate fictional stereotypes, while real people are hurt by the hatred. Not only does homophobia hurt the LGBT population, but it also hurts those that are close to them. What about the siblings or the parents of someone that is suffering from the hatred